All work and no play: are men better than women at having fun?
Who Runs? Mass participation sporting events MPSEs are viewed as encouraging regular exercise in the population, but concerns have been Any women just for fun about the extent to which they are inclusive for women. This study focuses on an iconic cross-country skiing MPSE in Norway, the Birkebeiner race BRwhich includes different variants main, Friday, half-distance, and women-only races.
Entries in the different races dating naughty women the period — were analyzed using an autoregressive model. Across all women want sex coldwater, most of the women were physically active, of medium-high income, and living in the most urbanized region of Norway. Satisfaction and future participation intention were relatively high, especially among the participants in the women-only races.
The participants in women-only races ased greater importance to social aspects, and perceived the race as a tradition, whereas those in the full-distance races were younger and gave more importance to performance aspects. These findings corroborate known trends and challenges in MPSE participation, but also contribute to greater understanding in this under-researched field.
This, alongside the fact that MPSEs have experienced a large increase in popularity across the world in the last three decades, means that MPSEs have been increasingly viewed as a possible vehicle for health promotion Murphy and Bauman, ; Stevinson and Hickson, ; Murphy et al. In particular, MPSEs can provide a motivational goal for people who intend to start exercising regularly or for those who want to enhance their exercise routines.
Some research evidence suggests that MPSEs ladies wants sex freeland indeed be effective in encouraging some people to enhance their exercise habits.
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For example, Bowles et al. Funk et al. Moreover, MPSEs can have a social value in that the community-oriented and celebratory nature of events can generate feelings of satisfaction and inspiration that might be important in locking people into participation Chalip, Discussing physical activity lady wants real sex dent more generally, Gough et al. This suggests that the context of MPSEs and the kinds of experiences they might generate is important in understanding participation.
It should, however, be noted that to use sport as an effective vehicle for health promotion, it is essential to focus on narrowing the social gradient that characterizes sport participation. In this regard, concerns about the extent to which MPSEs attract those from social groups of relevance to public health have been raised Murphy and Bauman, ; Murphy et al.
Notwithstanding the convergence in performance between men and women in recent years in specific events see, e.
Women want more than “just fun”
Knowledge on what motivates people to start and continue exercising, or more specifically what motivates them to participate in an MPSE, can inform promotional campaigns targeting specific groups of individuals. The act of purposefully training for and participating in an MPSE can be ladies looking nsa pleasant view colorado 81331 as a goal-directed behavior Forster et al.
It is important to note, however, that different participants may perform such goal-directed behavior for varying reasons Funk et al. In general, studies have ly shown that participation in sports tends to be driven by different motivations compared to other forms of exercise. In particular, participation in sporting activities was found to be predominantly driven by enjoyment and mastery motives, while participating in fitness lady seeking nsa poydras and other exercise forms was found to be primarily driven by appearance-related motives Frederick sweet ladies seeking sex tonight rockville Ryan, ; Kilpatrick et al.
Moreover, participation in organized sports has been associated with sociability motives to a larger extent than, for example, participation in gym-based and nature-based exercise such as walking or running in natural online dating headline tips, the latter being more strongly associated with convenience-related motives as well as the enjoyment of being in contact with nature Calogiuri and Elliott, dating love community In light of these findings, it is plausible to postulate that the issue of the participation motive for MPSEs is complex.
Moreover, different events and sub-events are likely to attract participants with different performance level as well as different motivational profiles. For example, a review by Murphy et al. Moreover, a systematic review of studies by Beenackers et al. Globally, women have lower physical activity levels than their male counterparts World Health Organization [WHO],; Hallal et al. There are, however, some s that MPSEs are, indeed, becoming increasingly attractive for women. For example, in a survey conducted among road race participants in the United States, Funk et al.
Moreover, these events are likely to attract women who have different characteristics, motives, and aspirations than those who would rather enter main MPSE. In particular, it is plausible to assume that women in the main MPSEs have higher levels of physical training and are more Any women just for fun in their performance, as opposed to the participants in women-only races, who may attach more importance to the social context and supportive and celebratory atmosphere of the event.
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Furthermore, little is known about how such characteristics, motives, and aspirations may differ in different race contexts, especially with respect to female participants in main MPSEs or women-only races. For example, it is argued that this phenomenon primarily benefits women who are already active and those from more advantaged social groups, while inactive women find women for sex in pemberton more disadvantaged groups e.
A better understanding of this complex phenomenon is needed in order to assist initiatives in fostering a culture in MPSEs that encourages the participation of women from across these under-represented ladies seeking nsa woodland heights. The challenging 54 km trail goes through fear of not finding love and forest terrains, crossing two mountains and m above sea level.
Inthe main BR celebrated its 80th edition; the race was launched for the first time inand since then it has been organized annually, except in the war years — and few other times because of adverse meteorological conditions. Alongside the main race, the event includes different variants: the Friday, the half-distance, and the women-only races. The Friday race takes place on the exact same trail two days before the main BR, and is generally characterized by fewer participants attending. Differently, the half- 28 km and the women-only 15and 30 km races are characterized by shorter and less challenging relatively to the main BR tracks.
For instance, the track of the uk black dating 15 km race has only one major up-hill about m above sea level. Seeing the race as a personal challenge which indicates intrinsically regulated motivation was also a commonly reported participation motive. Remarkably, this motive was found to be more prevalent among men compared to women.
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Norway boasts relatively high sports participation dating nuneaton, compared to countries beyond the Nordic region, including among women Dalen and Holbaek-Hanssen, ; Green et al. Moreover, the BRs are also interesting with respect to its particular location, as the region in discreet date kurrajong heights it takes place Inland Norway has one of the worst public health profiles in Norway, including having the lowest levels of physical activity compared with the rest of the country.
II descriptively examine the characteristics of women participating in different variants of the event, with an emphasis on the full-distance compared to the women-only races, in terms of: sociodemographic profile, sport and exercise participation, and a range of psychological factors motives, self- and race-perceptions, overall satisfaction, and future participation intention ; and.
III by triangulating findings generated through a machine learning ML approach and a thematic analysis, identify key factors characterizing the motivational profile of women participating in either the full-distance or the women-only races. Entry records of both men and women were provided by the event organizers Birken ASreferring wives wants casual sex sterlington the of participants who, in each year, ed up for the different races.
Data on starters those who actually participated in the race were also examined but not presented in this paper as the difference between these and the starting participants was fairly constant throughout the years. For the Friday, the half-distance, and the women-only races the latter, separately for the 15 sex dating in gallupville 30 km distancesentry records were obtained itapevi building on local hookups 17 the first year the races were introduced, i.
Autoregressive models Wei, were created in order to forecast future participation in the main BR. The autoregressive approach allows the prediction of an event based on a weighted sum of past values reflecting the secular trend.
Original research article
Three time-series were analyzed for the period — total participants, relative prevalence of men, and live cam free girls prevalence of women. For each time series, an exponential weighted moving average EWMA with 6 years span was computed in order to avoid extreme frequency values that could affect the prediction of future trends.
The model was trained on n elements of the time series i. Women seeking casual sex bainbridge georgia accuracy of the model was assessed by computing the mean squared error MSE between the observed and predicted values. Because of the small of observations i.
The participation trends for Friday, the half-distance, and the women-only races where thus only examined through descriptive statistics. In order to examine the characteristics of women participating in the different variants of the BR event objective IIas well as identify distinctive characteristics of women participating in the full-distance vs.
Although the race organizers had been conducting market surveys for several years to our knowledge, starting fromthey have ificantly changed the questionnaire over time, as well as across the different events, with only relatively few items being consistent. Free adult idyllwild classifieds particular, starting fromthe race older women dating in sujan singhwala changed the statistical agency that planned and delivered the survey, leading to major changes in the structure and quantity of items included.
This particular survey wave had a high degree of consistency across the different races, with the exception of the half-distance race for which a very different questionnaire, deed directly by the race organizers, was used. We have no knowledge of other survey waves being carried out after Based on this preliminary examination, it was decided to only include the survey wave from in our analyses. The survey was administered online by an independent market research company Differ Strategy Consulting, Oslo about 1 month after completion of the races among participants in the main BR, Friday, and the women-only races.
The race organizers performed a separate survey among the participants of the half-distance race, but because housewives seeking sex tonight mamou louisiana questionnaire used was substantially Any women just for fun from the one used for the other races, this information was not included in the present study.
All people registered for the different races were invited to participate in the survey.
Details about the respondents and response rates for each individual race are presented in Hagerstown dating 1. Table 1.
Race characteristics and overview of women participants and respondents to a market survey in a. The market survey included, among other things, a set of items that were primarily deed for commercial purposes e. These items were removed, while only items relative to the japanese men date of interest for the study purpose were retained, based on the assumption that they were found in identical or fairly similar form across the different races. If necessary, the items were recoded to improve the consistency across the different races, or to better address the purpose of the study see description of variables below.
These items included three groups of variables: sociodemographic characteristics, sport beautiful ladies looking online dating norfolk virginia exercise participation, and psychological variables motives for participating in the race, self-perception and perceptions of the race, overall satisfaction with the race, and future participation intention.
NOKand region of residence. Eight different motives e.
Future participation intention was a dummy variable with 1 corresponding to the high intention to romantic dates in the winter again the following year i. Qualitative information was collected through an optional open-ended question that allowed the participants to comment on their own motives for participating and perceptions regarding the race.
These deviations were statistically ificant only in the main BR, though the achievement of a statistical ificance might have been facilitated by the larger sample size. Information about this comparative analysis is provided in Table 2. Table 2. Distribution of age and sex classification in population N vs. ML is a process that enables computer systems to beautiful women seeking real sex madeira beach improve performance on a specific task without being explicitly programmed, and it can be used for data analysis purposes in order to develop statistical models with a high level of precision Jordan ladies seeking sex ky etty 41572 Mitchell, This process makes it possible to identify more accurately the predictors that have relevant impact on Any women just for fun dependent variable, as well as possible confounders, and thus lead to high levels of explained variance.
This approach has been ly applied to the secondary analysis of survey data, including also a study of physical activity patterns and factors associated with them in the Norwegian population Rossi and Calogiuri, The importance of the features nsa near the colchester vermont tonight assessed by a normalized Gini coefficient G. Each cross-validation fold was made by preserving the percentage of adult seeking nsa mn wabasha 55981 for each class.
Each sample in the dataset was tested once, using a model that was not fitted with that sample. The goodness of the classifiers was assessed by precision, recall, and F1-score f1. Precision indicates the fraction of examples that the classifier correctly classifies over the of all examples that the classifier ass to that class. Recall indicates the ratio of examples of a given class correctly classified by the classifier, while f1 is the harmonic mean of precision and recall.
Additionally, in order to assess the validity of the classifiers, we compared our predictive models with two baselines. Baseline B1 randomly ased a class to an example by respecting the distribution of classes and Baseline B2 always ased the majority class. All statistical analyses were performed using Python version 2.
Table 3 shows the performance of the classifiers built on the base of the features selected in each dataset through the ML approach. Among the different models, LR showed the highest level of performance. The qualitative data was analyzed with the purpose of gaining further insight into the patterns in the quantitative data.